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Glossary



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Aerobic Activity

includes any activity that uses a large amount of oxygen and requires the body to burn many calories.

Anaerobic Activity

includes any activity that requires a small amount of energy and can be completed with little to no oxygen intake during the movement (e.g., swimming under water, running a 60 metre dash).

Biomechanics

mechanical concepts and principles applied to human movement such as force, friction, resistance, balance, and levers.

Control (Level of Skill Performance)

the body appears to respond somewhat accurately to the student's intentions but the movement requires intense concentration. A movement that is repeated becomes increasingly uniform and efficient. (This level of skill performance is one level above the progressing-towards-control level.)

Fitness Appraisal

a tool that can be used by students to gather data about their current level of fitness (e.g., timed distance run, number of consecutive 90 degree push-ups).

Fitness Assessment

reflects the process that students individually engage in to support improvement in, or maintenance of, levels of fitness that have been established through initial fitness appraisals.

Goals of Physical Education

broad statements that are a synthesis of what students are expected to know and be able to do in a particular area of study upon graduation. Goals remain constant throughout K-12. The outcomes specify how the goals are met at each grade level.

Health-related Fitness Standards

researched-based standards that indicate a performance level, by age and gender, in various fitness appraisals that is reflective of the minimum requirement for healthy living.

Indicators

representative of what students need to know and/or be able to do in order to achieve an outcome. Indicators represent the breadth and the depth of the outcome. The list provided in the curriculum is not an exhaustive list. Teachers may develop additional and/or alternative indicators but those teacher-developed indicators must be reflective of, and consistent with, the breadth and depth that is defined by the given indicators.

Inquiry

involves students in some type of "research" on a specific topic, problem, or issue for learning and action. Inquiry is a way of opening up spaces for students' interests and involving them in as many different aspects of a topic, problem, or issue as students can find.

Lead-up Games

games that are not as complicated as the actual game but provide opportunity to apply newly acquired skills in a controlled environment (e.g., three-on-three soccer, one-bounce volleyball).

Locomotor Skills

skills that see the body moving through space. They include such skills as walking, running, leaping, and sliding.

Manipulative Skills

skills that see the body interact with objects by sending (e.g., throwing, striking), receiving (e.g., catching, collecting), deflecting, and accompanying (e.g., stick handling).

Metacognition

the ability to think about and reflect on one's own thinking and learning processes.

Movement Activity

the all-inclusive descriptor that includes any form of physical movement including leisure activities such as gardening, energy expending activities such as speed walking, and skillful movements used in cooperative and competitive games and sports.

Movement Concepts

the commonalities that exist in the performance of a variety of movement skills and are transferable to support skillful movement (e.g., wider base of support and lower centre of gravity strengthen stability – serve reception body position in net/wall games, defensive stance in invasion/territorial games).

Movement Principles

concepts related to the efficiency and effectiveness of movement. They can be applied in a variety of situations.

Movement Strategies

predetermined decisions related to the application of movement in cooperative and competitive experiences with others. Strategies are ideas regarding what to do and when to do it that can be applied in a variety of contexts (e.g., playing zone defense or one-on-one defense in invasion/territorial games, playing front and back or side by side in badminton/tennis doubles).

Movement Tactics

the application of appropriate performance decisions that arise as a result of authentic experiences in the context of participation in a movement activity (e.g., when to pass, when to shoot, when to support, when to cover).

Movement Variables

used to expand students' awareness of what the body does (Body), where the body moves (Space), how the body performs the movement (Effort), and with whom and with what the body moves (Relationships).

Non-locomotor Skills

skills that see the body moving while remaining in one spot. They include such skills as jumping and landing on the spot, balancing, twisting, and bending.

Outcome

statement of what students are expected to know and be able to do by the end of a course in a particular area of study at a particular grade level.

Performance Cues

provide information about specific components of a skill that help the performer move skilfully by transferring the cognitive understanding of the movement to the motor performance, thus increasing the potential for skillful movement.

Physical Activity

movement of the body that expends energy; it is the vehicle that is used in physical education.

Principles of Practice

support the learning of movement skills and include:

  • incorporating a whole-part-whole method
  • engaging in shorter practice of specific skills distributed over time as opposed to one session and/or one long session
  • practising in game-like conditions and not as isolated experiences.
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