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Teaching Physical Education 5

Developing Physical Literacy
Constructing Understanding Through Literacy
Learning Through Critical, Creative, and Powerful Strategies
Meeting the Needs of All Students
Planning
Achieving Grade Specific Curricular Outcomes
Organization of Movement Activites

An Effective Physical Education Program

There are six characteristics emphasized in this curriculum that are components of an effective physical education program. Student learning is supported by a program that:

  • focuses on achieving physical literacy
  • provides meaningful contexts, key ideas, and questions for Elementary Level students to explore
  • teaches students how to use critical, creative, and powerful learning strategies
  • sees teachers planning to meet the needs of all students
  • is planned purposefully based on the curriculum
  • is defined by the grade specific outcomes.

Developing Physical Literacy Back to top

Physical literacy can be described as the ability and motivation to capitalize on our movement potential to make a significant contribution to our quality of life. As humans, we all exhibit this potential; however, its specific expression will be particular to the culture in which we live and the movement capacities with which we are endowed.

An individual who is physically literate:

  • moves with poise, economy, and confidence in a wide variety of physically challenging situations.
  • is perceptive in ‘reading’ all aspects of the physical environment, anticipating movement needs or possibilities and responding appropriately to these, with intelligence and imagination.
  • has a well established sense of self as embodied in the world. This, together with an articulate interaction with the environment, engenders positive self esteem and self confidence.
  • develops fluency in self-expression through non-verbal communication and perceptive and empathetic interaction with others.
  • can identify and articulate the essential qualities that influence the effectiveness of own movement performance, and has an understanding of the principles of embodied health, with respect to basic aspects such as exercise, sleep and nutrition.

(Whitehead, 2006)

Counteracting Myths

The vision of physical education and the physically literate individual presented in this curriculum counteracts common myths:

Myth: Physical education is not an integral part of a student’s learning experience. It is an extra.

Fact: Physical education is a Required Area of Study in Saskatchewan. It is interconnected with all other subject areas in the pursuit of educating the whole person. It involves students directly in thinking, creating meaning, and learning how to learn.

Myth: Committing time to physical education programs may be detrimental to student achievement in other subject areas. It is important to focus on the “academic” subjects because those are the ones that will determine a student’s success in life.

Fact: Daily participation in physical education can improve students’ success in all areas of study. “Adding to the growing body of research extolling the cognitive benefits of physical exercise, a recent study concludes that mental focus and concentration levels in young children improve significantly after engaging in structured physical (movement activities)” (Caterino & Polak [1999], in Blaydes, n.d., p. 2).

Myth: As long as the children are active, having fun, and behaving, they are engaged in a quality physical education program.

Fact: Active play and enjoyment are important aspects of a quality physical education program but are not the final indicators of a beneficial program that will support children to be physically literate. Teachers need to plan purposeful learning experiences for students around the whats, hows, and whys of being active, moving skillfully, and securing strong relationships. Students who develop deeper understandings in these areas will be more willing and able to engage in active living for life. Teachers need to teach for understanding and skill through enjoyable participation in movement activity.

Myth: The main purpose of physical education is to help students achieve excellence in games and sports.

Fact: Physical education is a multifaceted process that teaches a wide range of concepts, tactics, strategies, skills, and deeper understandings with the aim of the students becoming physically educated, physically fit, able to enjoy a variety of movement activities, able to interact positively in a variety of situations, and committed to lifelong well-being. It is a continuing process of articulated, sequential development of skills, talents, attitudes, and behaviours.

Myth: Physical education only addresses the physical components of the individual.

Fact: Although physicality is of primary focus within physical education classes, it cannot stand alone. As holistic beings, we must recognize the spiritual, mental, and emotional aspects of human nature as well. These dimensions of our being must all work together as we strive for balance, harmony, and wellness.

Myth: Physical education focuses on the more athletically gifted.

Fact: All students have the potential to become physically literate, and an effective physical education program will benefit all young people regardless of their interests, skills, or abilities.

Myth: Physical education should be similar to training – highly “skill and drill” oriented. It should be mainly a mechanical process with drill and practice instructional methods being the most effective.

Fact: In physical education, emphasis must be placed on a broad spectrum of learning and personal development. Learning involves thinking and feeling, being active and processing information, thinking critically and making decisions, not just using skills. Teachers need to provide students with a diversity of learning experiences that provide students with multiple ways of showing what they know.

Myth: Students should carry out a variety of physical fitness activities but do not need to understand why they are doing so.

Fact: Learning cognitively is as important to physical education as learning specific movement skills. Students need to know why they are learning what they learn in physical education and how they are benefiting personally. Then, they will be more likely to accept responsibility for their own learning and commit to active living to enjoy the benefits of physical education over the long term.

Myth: Physical education programs that provide students with a diversity of movement experiences may be detrimental to doing one’s best in a particular activity. It is important to focus on a specific activity (or sport) in order to do really well.

Fact: A well-planned, comprehensive physical education program helps children and youth develop all their abilities and talents rather than focusing exclusively on a narrow range. Because children and youth change and grow over time, they should be encouraged to become well-rounded. They should be encouraged to become proficient in, and appreciate a wide variety of, movement activities from which to choose wisely. As the educator, you may need to go outside of your comfort zone to provide activities you may not be comfortable teaching to students. This may require collaboration with colleagues, community members, and provincial organizations to ensure that activities are properly introduced.

(Adapted by permission from the California Department of Education, CDE Press, 1430 N Street, Suite 3207, Sacramento, CA 95814.)

Constructing Understanding through Inquiry Back to top

Inquiry learning provides students with opportunities to build knowledge, abilities, and inquiring habits of mind that lead to deeper understanding of their world and human experience. The inquiry process focuses on the development of compelling questions, formulated by teachers and students, to motivate and guide inquiries into topics and issues related to curriculum content and outcomes.

Inquiry is more than a simple instructional strategy. It is a philosophical approach to teaching and learning, grounded in constructivist research and methods, which engages students in investigations that lead to disciplinary and transdisciplinary understanding.

Inquiry builds on children’s inherent sense of curiosity and wonder, drawing on their diverse backgrounds, interests, and experiences. The process provides opportunities for students to become active participants in a collaborative search for meaning and understanding.


Figure 2. Constructing Understanding through Inquiry

inquiry_pe.ai


Students who are engaged in inquiry:

  • construct deep knowledge and deep understanding rather than passively receiving information
  • are directly involved and engaged in the discovery of new knowledge
  • encounter alternative perspectives and differing ideas that transform prior knowledge and experience into deep understandings
  • transfer new knowledge and skills to new circumstances
  • take ownership and responsibility for their ongoing learning and mastery of curriculum content and skills.

(Adapted from Kuhlthau, Maniotes, & Caspari, 2007)

Inquiry learning is not a step-by-step process, but rather a cyclical process, with various phases of the process being revisited and rethought as a result of students’ discoveries, insights, and co-construction of new knowledge.

Inquiry prompts and motivates students to investigate topics within meaningful contexts. The inquiry process is not linear or lock-step, but is flexible and recursive. Experienced inquirers will move back and forth among various phases as new questions arise and as students become more comfortable with the process.

Well-formulated inquiry questions are broad in scope and rich in possibilities. Such questions encourage students to explore, observe, gather information, plan, analyze, interpret, synthesize, problem solve, take risks, create, conclude, document, reflect on learning, and formulate new questions for further inquiry.

Creating Questions for Inquiry in Physical Education

Teachers and students can begin their inquiry at one or more curriculum entry points; however, the process may evolve into transdisciplinary integrated learning opportunities, as reflective of the holistic nature of our lives and interdependent global environment.

It is essential to develop questions that are evoked by student interests and have potential for rich and deep learning. Compelling questions are used to initiate and guide the inquiry and give students direction for developing deep understandings about a topic or issue under study.

The process of constructing compelling questions can help students to grasp the important disciplinary or transdisciplinary ideas that are situated at the core of a particular curricular focus or context. These broad questions will lead to more specific questions that can provide a framework, purpose, and direction for the learning activities in a lesson, or series of lessons, and help students connect what they are learning to their experiences and life beyond school.

In physical education, effective questions are the key to fostering students’ critical thinking and problem solving. Questions such as “How should we respond when we are playing and someone else is cheating?” and “What are some activities we can participate in that will help to make our heart stronger?” are examples of questions that will lead to deeper understanding. Questioning should also be used to encourage students to reflect on how their actions and behaviours affect and are affected by others. Questions could be “Whose job is it to make sure we are physically active every day?” and “Is there ever a time when we are playing that we do not need to cooperate?”. Examples of questions to support students’ deeper understanding appear throughout the indicators related to different outcomes. Effective questioning is essential for student learning and these questions should be an integral part of teacher planning.

Learning through Critical, Creative, and Powerful Strategies Back to top

Critical and creative thinking is a central component of learning. Within physical education, one focus should be on “reflective thinking that is used to make reasonable and defensible decisions about movement tasks or challenges” (McBride, 1992, p. 115). More importantly, students need to experience opportunities to use critical and creative thinking within movement performance to understand more deeply the hows and whys of movement. Teachers should plan for authentic learning experiences that will support students in exploring, questioning, reflecting, and making decisions to develop deeper understanding that will lead to the transfer of learning to new situations. Grade 5 students need opportunities to think critically and creatively to promote deep thinking and deep understanding.

Meeting the Needs of All Students Back to top

An inclusive physical education environment is one which provides the opportunity for students of all abilities and interests to participate with their peers. Inclusive physical education recognizes the inherent value and strengths of each student, the need for independence and self-determination, and the right to choice. Inclusive physical education provides all students, including students with disabilities, the opportunity to enhance personal fitness, acquire motor skills, increase knowledge and understanding of movement, and strengthen their psychosocial well-being. Teachers can provide all students with the knowledge, understandings, and skills they need to live an active life appropriate to their abilities and interests (Rizzo, Davis, & Toussaint, 1994).

All students can learn about the talents, challenges, and abilities of all classmates, including those with disabilities. Students learn to appreciate that individual differences exist between people, and they learn that participating in an activity in a different way does not lessen its value. Inclusion recognizes the inherent value, dignity, and worth of each student, and reduces perceived differences among students. The process of identifying each student’s needs and accommodating them in a dignified and effective manner is the key to ensuring full and meaningful participation in physical education.

All students can benefit from adaptations to the learning environment and/or learning experience. They will all benefit when teachers use a variety of instructional strategies. Ideally, all students should achieve curriculum outcomes in authentic ways when basic adaptations are made.

Teachers will need to make individualized adaptations to meet the needs of some students as these students work towards achieving the grade specific outcomes. Physical education teachers can seek support from the school team, the school division team, and outside agencies to gain ideas on how best to work with students who have specific individual needs. Adjustments can be made in instructional material, methods, and/or the learning environment in order to assist all students in achieving the outcomes.

When teachers are initially given the challenge and opportunity of planning physical education for a student with a disability, feelings of uncertainty are to be expected. This may be due to a lack of information and experience that will change as teachers become more familiar with each student’s strengths, interests, and abilities.

(For more information about Moving to Inclusion (1994) and facilitating inclusive physical education opportunities for students with a disability, contact the Active Living Alliance for Canadians with a Disability (ALACD) at 1-800-771-0663 or ala@ala.ca.)

Planning Back to top

Teachers can create authentic learning opportunities for their students through purposeful planning. The curriculum outcomes are the starting point for all planning.

Year Planning

The sample year plan provided below is based on the following assumptions and recommendations:

  • Instructional physical education is scheduled for 150 minutes a week.
  • Physical education classes are scheduled for at least 30 minutes a day, every day throughout the school year.
  • Active physical education classes will take place in many locations such as the classroom, the hallways, the school yard, community facilities, and beyond. Instructional physical education will occur regardless of scheduled gym time.
  • All outcomes will be addressed initially by the teacher with the teacher planning to set the context for learning so as to engage the students in the learning process. To support students in achieving the outcomes, teachers will also need to plan extending and applying/challenging learning experiences.
  • Initiating is teacher-led and is the introduction to the new learnings related to knowledge, understandings, skills, and attitudes.
  • Extending is teacher-led and builds on previously introduced learnings to support students in growth towards achieving the outcomes.
  • Applying/challenging is teacher-facilitated with the teacher guiding students through learning experiences that challenge students to apply the knowledge, understandings, skills, and attitudes gained through previous learning opportunities.
  • All outcomes are interconnected and interdependent. Any combination of outcomes can be the focus for a time frame of instruction. Teachers should look for the connections when planning and make the connections when teaching. This will support students in developing the deeper understandings towards achieving the K-12 goals for physical education by the end of Grade 12.
  • Teachers begin by mapping out a year plan for the scaffolding of learning. The teachers first consider a progression for student learning that will support the students in achieving each outcome by the end of the year. Teachers then plan for making connections between the outcomes. This will help the teachers identify how and when to initiate and extend learnings, as well as when to challenge students to apply their learnings to ensure that students achieve the outcomes by the end of the year.

Table 1. Recommended Hours for Each Outcome

Suggested Hours of Focus
Initiating Extending Applying/ Challenging Total Hours
Outcome 5.1
Health-related Fitness
6 6 12
Outcome 5.2
Muscular Fitness
2 4 6
Outcome 5.3
Complex Skills
5 5 10
Outcome 5.4
Manipulative Skills
3 3 6
Outcome 5.5
Complex Manipulative Skills
4 5 9
Outcome 5.6
Performance Refinement
3 4 7
Outcome 5.7
Skillful Play
4 6 10
Outcome 5.8
Rules
2 2 4
Outcome 5.9
Safety and First-Aid
2 3 5
Outcome 5.10
Social Skills
2 4 6
Outcome 5.11
Culture and History
2 3 5
Sub total 35 45 80
Flexible Attention (Teacher decisions based on needs and interests of students, as well as the community context) 20
Total Hours 100


Table 2. Suggested Year Plan - Outcome Focus

Suggested Year Plan
Outcome Emphasis

Initiate

Teachers are initiating student learning through teacher-led learning experiences. This often involves new learnings for students.

Extend

Teachers are extending student learning by building on previously initiated and connected learnings.

Apply/Challenge

Teachers are facilitating student learning by guiding students through learning experiences that challenge them to apply the knowledge, understandings, skills, and attitudes gained through previous initiated and extended learning.



Month
Time
Outcomes

Health-related Fitness

Muscular Fitness

Complex Skills

Manipulative Skills

Complex Manipulative Skills

Performance Refinement

Skillful Play

Rules

Safety and First Aid

Social Skills

Culture and History

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

5.7

5.8

5.9

5.10

5.11

Aug./Sept.
13 hours

October
11 hours

November
11 hours

December
8 hours

January
9 hours

February
8 hours

March
8 hours

April
11 hours

May
11 hours

June
10 hours

Time Frame Plan

The recommended planning framework for physical education is a “time frame” plan. This planning framework encourages teachers to focus their planning for a period of time, while recognizing that students should not be expected to fully achieve an outcome by the end of a time frame. Outcomes are to be achieved by the end of the grade.

The graphic organizer, shown in Figure 3, could be followed when planning for a month of instruction. At the centre of the graphic is the “entry” outcome. This is an outcome that could be the main focus for the month. It could influence the planning for all lessons throughout the month. The surrounding outcomes are all interconnected with the “entry” outcome and some of them would be incorporated into the learnings of each lesson throughout the month. (Note: For balanced attention to the outcomes and balanced planning, the “entry” outcome would change for most months of the year.)


Figure 3. Sample Graphic Organizer for Time Frame Plan – December

pe_outcome_relationships.ai

Table 3. Sample Time Frame Planning Template

Time Frame Planning

Time Frame: (e.g., December – 8 hours of Instruction)

Entry Outcome: [e.g., Complex Skills (5.3)]

Entry Outcome Focus: The teacher identifies the specific learnings that will be the focus of planning for the time frame. The teacher could refer to specific indicators in this section.
Example: Indicators a., b., c., e., j., and l.

Suggested Interconnected Outcomes: The teacher identifies the outcomes that are a supporting focus and interconnected learnings for the ‘entry’ outcome. Students progress towards achieving each of these outcomes throughout the time frame through teacher-developed authentic learning experiences. The teacher could also identify the specific indicators that will support teacher planning and student learning.

Example:

Health-related Fitness (5.1)

Indicators a., b., d., e., and g.

View Outcomes and Indicators

Muscular Fitness (5.2)

Indicators a., e., d., and g.

Performance Refinement (5.6)

Indicators a., e., f., g., and i.

Social Skills (5.10)

Indicators a., b., and d.

Culture and History (5.11)

Indicators b., c., and d.

Learning Sequence: The teacher would map out the sequence of learnings based on the outcomes and indicators identified for the time frame. Specifically, the teacher could create a brief description of what will happen each day during this time frame. Each of these indicators provides ideas of what the teacher could connect together to create a series of lessons.

Lesson Planning

The prerequisite of a meaningful learning experience is a well-planned physical education lesson. All lesson planning should begin with an analysis of the outcomes to determine what it is students should know, understand, and be able to do. The indicators related to each outcome guide the plan for learning in each lesson and demonstrate the types of knowledge required (i.e., factual, conceptual, procedural, metacognitive, or a combination) to achieve each outcome. The teacher should also consider the types of evidence that would demonstrate students have achieved the outcome and how they will assess student progression towards achieving the indicated outcomes. After the outcomes, indicators, and assessment decisions have been made, teachers could choose to use an ‘opening for learning - development of learning - closure for learning’ format for the actual lesson. Teachers may also want to identify equipment, materials, and space needed, as well as organizational, safety, and management considerations to maximize learning opportunities.

As outcomes are interconnected and interdependent, any combination of the outcomes can be the focus for a lesson of instruction. The teacher will have made connections between outcomes when creating the time frame plan. These connections should also be made when the teacher is planning a lesson. This will support students in developing a deeper understanding of the separate outcomes and, more importantly, deeper understandings of the connected learnings associated with being physically literate.


Table 4. Sample Lesson Plan Template

Lesson Plan Template

Date:

Outcome Focus: The teacher identifies the interrelated/interconnected outcomes that are the starting point for the lesson plan (e.g., 5.1 – Health-related Fitness, 5.3 – Complex Skills, 5.10 – Social Skills, and 5.11 – History and Culture) and analyzes these outcomes to determine the types of knowledge required (i.e., factual, conceptual, procedural, metacognitive, or a combination).

Learning Focus:This is where the specific indicators for the lesson are identified.

Assessment and Evaluation:The teacher determines the types of evidence that would demonstrate students have achieved the outcome and plans strategies and processes to incorporate throughout the lesson that will support the teacher in determining if each student knows and can do this part of the process towards achieving the outcome.

Organization and Management Considerations: Planning related to organization of students, use of space, safety considerations, equipment requirements, rules, routines, and other factors can be planned here.

Opening for Learning

The teacher establishes the lesson focus, setting the stage for the flow of the lesson. The opening is clearly connected to the focus of the lesson and to the developmental and closure parts of the lesson. It is the initial ‘whole’ in the recommended whole-to part-to whole approach for the flow of the entire lesson.

Indicators: The teacher identifies the specific indicator(s) that will guide the learning.

Learning Experience: The teacher can describe exactly what the students will be doing and what the teacher will be doing to open the lesson. This introductory movement activity should serve as a lead-in activity for the lesson focus. The indicators associated with the outcome focus for the lesson will provide ideas for the opening.

The teacher will want to plan for adaptations and extensions in this section.

Development of Learning

This is the instructional portion of the lesson and should include a variety of experiences that will support students in achieving the outcomes and reflect the representative list of indicators. The learning opportunities planned for this section should transition from the lesson opening experience and students should be aware of what they will be learning during the lesson.

Indicators: The teacher identifies the specific indicator(s) that will guide the learning.

Learning Experience: The teacher develops the learning sequence. It could include demonstrations, teacher-led practice of tasks (e.g., sustain movement in time to the music for six consecutive minutes) and challenges (see how fast you need to move to the music to get your heart rate over 140 beats per minute), learning stations, and cooperative activities and games play. As much as possible, this plan should be built with the inquiry process as the foundation for learning and student exploration being encouraged. Throughout this learning experience, the teacher should also include plans for questioning for deeper understanding (e.g., How hard did you work during this dance? Is dancing a good activity to participate in if we want to challenge our cardiovascular fitness?).

The teacher will want to plan for adaptations and extensions in this section.

Closure for Learning

This is a plan to review the key points of the lesson as stated in the lesson focus and emphasized throughout the lesson. It may be in the form of questions allowing students to provide insights regarding the extent to which the lesson outcomes have been attained. It could include additional assessment and evaluation strategies.

Reflection: Following the lesson, the teacher could use this section to write a few notes that will assist in making decisions regarding future lessons. The main focus of this section should be self-questioning related to how well the students achieved the intended learnings for the lesson. The key question in this post-lesson thinking time should be as follows:

If students do not know or cannot do the learning focus of this lesson, what will I do?

This section will serve as the pre-thinking stage for a subsequent lesson.


Table 5. Sample Lesson Plan

Sample Lesson Plan – December

Date:

Outcome Focus:

Complex Skills (5.3)

Health-related Fitness (5.1)

Social Skills (5.10)

Learning Focus: (Indicators)

  • Perform established modern, folk, cultural/multicultural dances such as the polka from the German culture, the two step and square dance from various cultures ... (5.3).
  • Sustain participation in moderate to vigorous movement activities ... that increase heart rate and respiration rate, towards nine consecutive minutes on a consistent basis (5.1).
  • Demonstrate and practise ways to find pulse ... and to determine heart rate ... before, during, and after exercise (5.1).
  • Self-assess level of social skills on a regular basis through methods such as responding to prompts ... in learning logs or journals (5.10).
  • Acknowledge when own behaviour is irresponsible and/or lacking in self-control (5.10).

Assessment and Evaluation: Check for understanding by questioning throughout the lesson. Use anecdotal records to record the specifics of students who are having difficulty with the steps and rhythm of the dance, as well as those students who are not able to sustain moderate to vigorous physical activity. Assign learning log responses to pre-distributed prompts regarding social skills self-assessment.

Organization and Management Considerations: Music, DVD player.

Opening for Learning

Indicators:

  • Perform established modern, folk, cultural/multicultural dances such as the polka from the German culture, the two step and square dance from various cultures ... (5.3).
  • Sustain participation in moderate to vigorous movement activities ... (5.1).

Learning Experience:

  • Have music playing when the students enter the learning space.
  • Ask students to join with a partner, or to move on their own, using the polka steps that they learned during the previous two lessons.
  • Encourage students to sustain their dancing for the duration of the music trying to stay moderately to vigorously active for over six minutes.

[Example of Adaptation: For a student with limited leg mobility, adapt the movement so it can be from a seated position (e.g., moving arms at a moderate to vigorous level in time to the rhythm of the music). Have a partner polka on the spot facing the student with the limited mobility].

Development of Learning

Indicators:

  • Perform established modern, folk, cultural/multicultural dances such as the polka from the German culture, the two step and square dance from various cultures ... (5.3).
  • Demonstrate and practise ways to find pulse ... and to determine heart rate ... before, during, and after exercise (5.1).
  • Self-assess level of social skills on a regular basis through methods such as responding to prompts ... in learning logs or journals (5.10).
  • Acknowledge when own behaviour is irresponsible and/or lacking in self-control (5.10).

Learning Experience:

  • Prior to the music ending, turn it down slightly and tell the students that as soon as the music stops, they should find their pulse using one of the previously taught and practised methods.
  • After counting their pulse (time 15 seconds for them), tell the students to check the posted one-minute Heart Rate Conversion chart (which each student made in Math class) showing a range of numbers multiplied by four to equal a rate per minute. Discuss some of the heart rate numbers, referring to target heart rate, and ask whether students think this type of dancing would be a good option to include in the class plan for achieving individualized goals for cardiovascular improvement.
  • Introduce the two-step dance, using a whole-to part-to whole approach. First, show the full movement in time to music. Second, with a partner, break the dance steps down into smaller segments using a slower pace. Next, students move independently to the music practising the steps, and finally, students try the full dance to the rhythm of the music while dancing with a partner.
  • While the students are practising, question them on the five levels of social skills to reinforce their understanding of the levels (e.g., “When you were practising the steps alone, what level of social skills were you displaying?”, “When you are dancing with a partner, and possibly helping them, at what level are you?”).
  • Circulate among the students to provide individual and partner feedback.
  • If necessary, discuss, with individuals, behaviours that are irresponsible and/or lacking self-control. Ask the students how they could change their behaviour to move up the social skills levels.

The teacher will want to plan for adaptations and extensions in this section.

Closure for Learning

Pose questions and/or provide needed information to reinforce the lesson focus:

  • Ask some students to describe how they feel physically after dancing. Question them about their heart rate. Lead them to conclude that dancing can be a good activity to participate in to improve their cardiovascular endurance.
  • Discuss the social skills students displayed while dancing with a partner. Lead them to conclude that dancing can be a good activity to participate in for social experiences.
  • Conclude by assigning a learning log response to the “Social Skills” prompts in the logs.

Reflection: If students do not know or cannot do the learning focus of this lesson, what will I do?

Further Planning Considerations

During the lesson, all students should be expected to perform to the best of their ability. Adjustments may need to be made, however, to accommodate individual abilities and to support all students in experiencing success. When working with individual students, the teacher should personalize instruction and give feedback equally to both genders, to students with various skill levels, and to students with additional needs in ways that support personal growth towards achieving the learning outcomes. The teacher involves all students in developing deeper understandings such as those identified in the indicators, and provides meaningful feedback, both positive and corrective, that advances learning.

Teachers can plan for learning to continue beyond the actual scheduled physical education class. This will provide opportunities for students to develop independent learning skills and to take responsibility for learning. Families can be partners in supporting their children to engage in active living and to become skillful movers. This can also support the teacher in achieving maximum activity time during the instructional time while supporting students in achieving the learning outcomes of the curriculum.

Achieving Grade Specific Curricular Outcomes Back to top

Student learning outcomes identify what students are expected to know, understand, and be able to do (e.g., skills, knowledge, and attitudes) by the end of a specific time frame.

Learning outcomes are ultimately the subject of evaluation. Outcomes must not be rewritten or omitted. It is, however, appropriate to deconstruct an outcome and determine its relationship to student assessment and the overall intent of the curriculum. When teachers identify the main concepts and important processes in each outcome and visualize how students can achieve those outcomes, it is far easier to design and implement the most appropriate assessment and instructional tasks.

The outcomes provide guidance for program and lesson planning. Each outcome is supported by indicators which give the breadth and depth of the expectation. Teachers are encouraged to build upon and provide scaffolds so students can develop deeper understanding in relation to the outcomes.

Note: Within the outcomes and indicators in this curriculum, the terms “including” and “such as”, as well as the abbreviation “e.g.,” are each used for a specific purpose. The term “including” prescribes content, contexts, or strategies that students must experience in their learning, without excluding other possibilities. The term “such as” provides examples of possible broad categories of content, contexts, or strategies that teachers or students may choose, without excluding other possibilities. Finally, “e.g.,” provides specific examples of what could be included as part of the learning experience.

Grade 5 Physical Education Outcomes

The outcomes for Grade 5 Physical Education relate to all three K-12 physical education goals of Active Living, Skillful Movement, and Relationships. Not only do students need to move, they need to understand the “hows, whats, wheres, and whys” of movement. In the chart of Grade 5 outcomes and indicators, all three goals are listed above the outcome, with one, two, or all three of the goals in boldface font. All three goals are reflected in each outcome, with the goals in boldface font indicating a stronger connection to the outcome.

Active living, skillful movement, and relationships are interconnected aspects of learning that address the whole person in physical education and focus on creating a balanced self. Each outcome in physical education focuses on an important aspect of this area as part of the complete physical education experience. No single outcome, however, can stand alone as a learning focus for a period of instruction. Teachers should integrate learning experiences from multiple outcomes related to all three K-12 goals into every lesson.

Mainly connected to the Active Living goal, the teacher will lead Grade 5 students to understand and practise the habits and requirements for developing health-related fitness to support personal well-being. The students will be able to express the benefits of incorporating active living into their daily lives to support their whole well-being.

Building towards achieving the Skillful Movement goal, the growth and development of children is of significant consideration and the Basic Movement Patterns underlie the movement skills focused outcomes and indicators. Participation in movement activities usually requires a combination of Basic Movement Patterns and these Movement Patterns are generic in the sense that they are not limited to any single movement activity. After the skills are learned, they can be combined to become the more complex skills used in settings such as those found in games, sports, and body management activities. Most importantly, when students understand the movement patterns, they will develop the confidence and competence to engage in ‘new’ movement activities.

Flowing out of these movement patterns, specific movement skills are identified for teachers to focus on when teaching Grade 5 students. The level to which Grade 5 students should be expected to perform these movement skills has been identified in the outcomes. The language used to describe and communicate levels of skill proficiency for Grade 5 students is Control and Utilization.

Control: The body appears to respond somewhat accurately to the child’s intentions but the movement requires intense concentration. A movement that is repeated becomes increasingly uniform and efficient.

Detailed performance cues have been provided in the indicators of the curriculum when a Control level of skill is the focus at that grade level.

Utilization: The skill performance is somewhat automatic with the student performing the skill without thinking much about how to perform the skill. The skill can be used in multiple contexts.

Skillful Movement also includes expanding students’ awareness of what the body does, where the body moves, how the body performs the movement, and with whom or with what the body moves. These understandings are referred to as the Movement Variables. During the early elementary years, emphasis is placed on establishing a movement vocabulary and on the understanding and use of movement concepts from each of the four categories of Movement Variables – Body, Space, Effort, and Relationships. Grade 5 students will benefit from developing a basic understanding of the Variables to support them in growing as skillful movers and, conversely, as students develop movement skills, their understanding of the Movement Variables will increase.

Grade 5 Movement Variables Focus

The Body as an Instrument of Movement (What)

Body parts

Body shapes

Body actions

Space (Where)

General space

Levels – High, medium, low

Directions – Up/down, forward/backward/sideways, right/left

Pathways – Straight, curved, zig-zag

Extensions – size of movement (e.g., small swing, big swing); distance of movement from the centre of the body

Effort (How)

Force – Strong, light

Time/Speed – Fast, slow

Flow – Free, controlled

Relationships (With What or Whom)

Body parts – Round, curved, wide, twisted

Objects – Over/under, on/off, near/far, in front/behind, along/through

Others – Around, alongside, alone in a mass, in front/behind


Table 6. Focus on Movement Skills by Grade Level

Movement Skills – Developmental Progression

Grade Level Focus

E – Explore

P – Progressing towards Control

C – Control

U – Utilization

Basic Movement Patterns

Movement Skills

K

1

2

3

4

5

Locomotions

Locomotor Skills:

Walking

P

C

U

U

Running

P

C

U

U

Jumping Forward and Sideways and Landing

P

C

U

U

Jumping Backward and Landing

E

P

C

U

U

Hopping

E

P

C

U

U

Skipping

E

P

C

U

U

Galloping

E

P

C

U

U

Leaping

E

P

C

U

U

Sliding

E

P

C

U

U

Rolling Forward and Sideways

E

P

C

U

U

Rolling Backward

P

C

U

U

Statics, Landings, and Rotations

Non-locomotor Skills:

Balancing

P

C

U

U

U

Jumping and Landing on Feet on the Spot

P

C

U

U

Landing on Hands from Kneeling Position

E

P

C

U

U

Landing on Hands from Standing Position

E

P

C

U

U

Rotating on the Spot

E

P

C

U

U

Sending

Manipulative Skills:

Throwing

E

P

C

U

U

Kicking

E

P

C

U

U

Striking Objects with Hands

E

P

C

U

U

Striking Objects with Short-handled Implements

E

P

C

U

U

Volleying

E

P

C

U

Striking with Long-handled Implements

E

P

C

U

Punting

E

P

C

Receiving

Catching (Gathering, Collecting)

E

P

C

U

U

Accompanying

Hand Dribbling

E

P

C

U

U

Foot Dribbling

E

P

C

U

U

Safe and respectful interactions that reflect a consideration of self, others, and the learning environment are essential while learning and developing as a physically educated person. In Grade 5, the outcomes that focus more deeply on the Relationships goal encourage students to develop a foundation for a balanced self in the context of moving skillfully and living actively.

By Grade 5, students should have developed a clear understanding of what the health-related components of fitness are and the benefits of being physically active. It is in this grade that students begin to create and implement a plan for improving their own level of cardiovascular health-related fitness. Specifically, Grade 5 students focus attention on using the F.I.T.T. principle (Frequency, Intensity, Type of activity, and Time) as a guide in creating plans for improving their cardiovascular fitness. Each student sets a personal goal for growth, then follows a class-created plan for achieving individualized goals.

Grade 5 students will also start to apply beneficial and safe strategies to improve the health-related components of flexibility and muscular endurance. Students will determine, demonstrate, and express the purpose and qualities of effective and safe exercising that affects flexibility and muscular endurance. Students will be able to explain the potential consequences of poor flexibility and the benefits of improved levels of muscular endurance and flexibility on their ability to improve performance of motor skills. One way Grade 5 students can apply this learning is through collaboratively creating and participating in a flexibility routine and muscular endurance exercise.

All basic movement skills were introduced in previous grades with some being developed to the level of refinement. In Grade 5, students continue to develop some manipulative skills to a higher level of performance by applying performance cues. Students also focus on performing complex movement skills that are a combination of locomotor skills and non-locomotor skills learned in previous grades, as well as on the manipulative skills that already have been developed to a utilization level.

As students progress in their understanding of how to develop movement skills, Grade 5 students apply performance cues, movement strategies, and principles of practice in complex movement activities. The goal is to improve both students’ own performance and the performance of others. Students move to the level of refining skills and strategies used in new and previously learned small-sided and lead-up net/wall games. Students critically reflect on chosen movement skills and strategies used in small-sided and lead-up target games, striking/fielding games, invasion/territorial games, and alternate environment activities and games. As well, students will demonstrate an understanding of, and willingness to, accept the rules of teacher-selected games and adapted sport activities by officiating and participating in classmate officiated competitions. Students further develop their understanding of rules by creating and adapting rules of play.

In addition to the focus on fitness improvement, active living, and skill and game strategy development, Grade 5 students gain a deeper understanding of the safety, social, cultural, and historical factors and influences on participation in movement activities. Students identify how to prevent and care for common physical activity related discomforts and injuries. Students will examine and self-assess personal positioning within the five levels of social skills as identified by Hellison (2003). As well, Grade 5 students build on what they learned about the cultural and historical influences on participation in movement activities covered in Grade 4. Students examine, evaluate, and communicate the influence of Canadians, both historically and currently, on the development of the numerous options available to live actively in this country.

Organization of Movement Activities Back to top

The following chart clarifies which games and activities fit into the categories that have been used as the organizing structure within the physical education outcomes and indicators (Griffin & Butler, 2005). At the Grade 5 level, student learning should occur within the context of small-sided and/or lead-up games to ensure maximum engagement in the experience. For example, Grade 5 students will benefit more while participating in three-on-three soccer as opposed to the full eleven-on-eleven game. Additionally, the teacher needs to make choices that provide students with a wide range of experiences, including alternate environment and body management activities.

NOTE: The following chart does not dictate which games or activities must be covered, nor does it suggest that all games or activities must be included in a year plan. All activity choices should follow school division policies related to safety guidelines.

Sample Movement Activity Options

Target Games

Invasion/Territorial Games

Net/Wall Games

Striking/Fielding Games

Low-organizational and Inventive Games

Body Management Activities

Alternate Environment Activities

  • bowling
  • curling
  • golf
  • bocce ball
  • archery
  • ring toss
  • pin guard
  • basketball
  • touch/flag football
  • moose skin ball
  • soft lacrosse
  • soccer
  • floor hockey
  • scoop ball
  • team handball
  • buffalo corral
  • ultimate frisbee
  • speedball
  • double ball
  • badminton
  • table tennis
  • tennis
  • volleyball
  • pickleball
  • wallyball
  • softball
  • longball
  • cricket
  • kickball
  • king’s court
  • prisoner’s base
  • capture the flag
  • bombardment
  • cooperative games
  • environmental games
  • dance
  • educational gymnastics
  • yoga
  • track and field
  • aerobics
  • pilates
  • wrestling
  • skipping
  • aquatics
  • cross-country skiing
  • downhill skiing
  • snowshoeing
  • cycling
  • hiking
  • skating
  • orienteering
  • skateboarding
  • wall climbing
  • kayaking
  • trapping
  • roping
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